Dupixent® (dupilumab) Phase 3 Trial Shows Positive Results in Children 1 to 11 Years of Age with Eosinophilic Esophagitis
First and only investigational Phase 3 trial to show positive results in these young children; results follow recent approval of Dupixent in people with eosinophilic esophagitis aged 12 years and older who weigh at least 40 kilograms
Trial met its primary endpoint, with 68% of patients on higher dose Dupixent and 58% on lower dose Dupixent achieving histological disease remission at 16 weeks
Fifth pediatric pivotal trial across three type 2 inflammatory diseases to reinforce the well-established efficacy and safety profile of Dupixent
"Dupixent is the first medicine to alleviate key signs of eosinophilic esophagitis in children as young as 1 year of age in a Phase 3 trial. The efficacy of Dupixent demonstrates that in this age group, as in adults, IL-4 and IL-13 are key drivers of the type 2 inflammation underlying this debilitating disease," said
EoE is a chronic inflammatory disease that damages the esophagus and prevents it from working properly. The results seen with Dupixent in adults and children with EoE demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-13 are key drivers of the type 2 inflammation underlying this disease. In children, common symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis include acid reflux, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, trouble swallowing, and a failure to thrive. These symptoms can impact growth and development, and can cause food-related fear and anxiety which can persist through adulthood. Diet adjustments, which oftentimes include the elimination of many foods, is the standard treatment for EoE, as well as the use of treatments not approved for the disease. These include proton pump inhibitors, swallowed topical corticosteroids, or in severe cases, a feeding tube, which may be used to ensure proper caloric intake and weight gain. Of the approximately 21,000 children under the age of 12 in the
"We are incredibly excited to share results from this Phase 3 pivotal trial evaluating Dupixent in young children suffering from eosinophilic esophagitis – the first ever to show positive results across a variety of primary and secondary endpoints. The lack of treatment options for children living with eosinophilic esophagitis leaves many caregivers with the stress and burden of adapting their child's meals and their entire family's daily schedules to ensure healthy growth and development. In some cases, they must resort to off-label use of poorly studied treatments like steroids that can pose serious health risks when used long term," said
In the Phase 3 trial, 102 children aged 1 to 11 were randomized to receive Dupixent, in either a higher dose (n=37) or lower dose (n=31) regimen based on body weight, or placebo (n=34). At 16 weeks, 68% of children on higher dose and 58% of patients on lower dose Dupixent achieved the primary endpoint of significant histological disease remission (peak esophageal intraepithelial eosinophil count of ≤6 eosinophils [eos]/high power field [hpf]) compared to 3% of children on placebo (p<0.0001 for both). Additionally, children receiving higher dose Dupixent experienced the following changes at week 16:
- 86% reduction in peak esophageal intraepithelial eosinophil count from baseline compared to a 21% increase for placebo (p<0.0001).
- 0.88 and 0.84 reduction from baseline in disease severity and extent, respectively, as measured at the microscopic level in biopsy specimens compared to a 0.02 and 0.05 increase for placebo (both p<0.0001).
- 3.5-point reduction in abnormal endoscopic findings from baseline compared to a 0.3-point increase for placebo (p<0.0001).
- A numerical improvement in the proportion of days children experienced symptoms of EoE from baseline, as reported by caregivers (Pediatric EOE signs/symptoms questionnaire [PESQ-C]), compared to placebo, though not statistically significant. The PESQ-C is a novel endpoint developed by Regeneron and Sanofi used for the first time in this trial, designed to assess symptoms in young children through their caregivers (as signs), as children may have difficulty verbalizing their symptoms themselves.
- As part of a prespecified exploratory analysis, a 3.09 percentile increase in body weight for age percentile from baseline compared to 0.29 for placebo.
Histological, anatomic and cellular secondary endpoints were also analyzed for the lower dose group, with all being nominally significant and generally comparable with the higher dose. More detailed results will be shared at an upcoming medical meeting, including additional data for the endpoints in the lower dose group.
Safety results were generally consistent with the known safety profile of Dupixent in its approved EoE indication for children and adults aged 12 years and older who weigh at least 40 kg. For the 16-week treatment period, overall rates of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for Dupixent and 91% for placebo. AEs more commonly (≥5%) observed with Dupixent compared to placebo included COVID-19 (21% Dupixent, 0% placebo; all cases were mild or moderate and did not lead to study discontinuation), rash (9% Dupixent, 6% placebo), headache (8% Dupixent, 3% placebo), viral gastroenteritis (6% Dupixent, 3% placebo), diarrhea (6% Dupixent, 3% placebo) and nausea (6% Dupixent, 0% placebo). Rates of treatment discontinuation due to AEs prior to week 16 were 0% for Dupixent and 6% for placebo.
The potential use of Dupixent in children with EoE aged 1 to 11 years is currently under clinical development, and the safety and efficacy have not been fully evaluated by any regulatory authority. These data will be discussed with regulatory authorities around the world, starting with the
About the Dupixent Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Trial
The Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of Dupixent in young children aged 1 to 11 years with EoE, as determined by histological and patient- or caregiver-reported measures. At baseline, 98% of these patients had at least one co-existing type 2 inflammatory disease such as food allergy, allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis.
Patients received Dupixent subcutaneously at either a higher dose or lower dose regimen based on their weight (ranging from ≥5 kg to <60 kg) over a 16-week period, at which point all endpoints were assessed. The dosing frequency ranged between every two weeks and every four weeks, based on weight.
The primary endpoint was histological disease remission. Secondary endpoints included histopathologic measures of the severity and extent of tissue scarring in the esophagus (EoE-HSS grade and stage scores, which measure changes in eight cellular and tissue features on 0-3 scales, respectively), and abnormal endoscopic findings (EoE Endoscopic Reference Score [EoE-EREFS] on a 0-18 scale), as well as changes in caregiver-reported symptoms (proportion of days with 1 or more EoE signs [e.g. stomach pain, vomiting, food refusal] by the Pediatric EoE Sign/Symptom Questionnaire-caregiver version [PESQ-C]). An exploratory endpoint assessed change from baseline in body weight for age percentile.
The trial is ongoing with a 36-week extended active treatment period to evaluate long-term outcomes.
Dupixent, which was invented using Regeneron's proprietary VelocImmune® technology, is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the signaling of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) pathways and is not an immunosuppressant. The Dupixent development program has shown significant clinical benefit and a decrease in type 2 inflammation in Phase 3 trials, establishing that IL-4 and IL-13 are key and central drivers of the type 2 inflammation that plays a major role in multiple related and often co-morbid diseases. These diseases include approved indications for Dupixent such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and EoE, as well as investigational diseases such as prurigo nodularis.
Dupixent has received regulatory approvals around the world for use in certain patients with atopic dermatitis, asthma, CRSwNP or EoE in different age populations. Dupixent is currently approved across these indications in the
About Regeneron's VelocImmune Technology
Regeneron's VelocImmune technology utilizes a proprietary genetically engineered mouse platform endowed with a genetically humanized immune system to produce optimized fully human antibodies. When Regeneron's co-Founder, President and Chief Scientific Officer
Dupilumab Development Program
Dupilumab is being jointly developed by Regeneron and Sanofi under a global collaboration agreement. To date, dupilumab has been studied across more than 60 clinical trials involving more than 10,000 patients with various chronic diseases driven in part by type 2 inflammation.
In addition to the currently approved indications, Regeneron and Sanofi are studying dupilumab in a broad range of diseases driven by type 2 inflammation or other allergic processes in Phase 3 trials, including prurigo nodularis, pediatric EoE, hand and foot atopic dermatitis, chronic inducible urticaria-cold, chronic spontaneous urticaria, chronic pruritis of unknown origin, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with evidence of type 2 inflammation, chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and bullous pemphigoid. These potential uses of dupilumab are currently under clinical investigation, and the safety and efficacy in these conditions have not been fully evaluated by any regulatory authority.
DUPIXENT is a prescription medicine used:
- to treat adults and children 6 months of age and older with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (eczema) that is not well controlled with prescription therapies used on the skin (topical), or who cannot use topical therapies. DUPIXENT can be used with or without topical corticosteroids. It is not known if DUPIXENT is safe and effective in children with atopic dermatitis under 6 months of age.
- with other asthma medicines for the maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe eosinophilic or oral steroid dependent asthma in adults and children 6 years of age and older whose asthma is not controlled with their current asthma medicines. DUPIXENT helps prevent severe asthma attacks (exacerbations) and can improve your breathing. DUPIXENT may also help reduce the amount of oral corticosteroids you need while preventing severe asthma attacks and improving your breathing. DUPIXENT is not used to treat sudden breathing problems. It is not known if DUPIXENT is safe and effective in children with asthma under 6 years of age.
- with other medicines for the maintenance treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) in adults whose disease is not controlled. It is not known if DUPIXENT is safe and effective in children with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis under 18 years of age.
- to treat adults and children 12 years of age and older, who weigh at least 88 pounds (40 kg), with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). It is not known if DUPIXENT is safe and effective in children with eosinophilic esophagitis under 12 years of age and who weigh at least 88 pounds (40 kg).
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Do not use if you are allergic to dupilumab or to any of the ingredients in DUPIXENT®.
Before using DUPIXENT, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
- have eye problems.
- have a parasitic (helminth) infection.
- are scheduled to receive any vaccinations. You should not receive a "live vaccine" right before and during treatment with DUPIXENT.
- are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known whether DUPIXENT will harm your unborn baby.
- A pregnancy registry for women who take DUPIXENT during pregnancy collects information about the health of you and your baby. To enroll or get more information call 1-877-311-8972 or go to https://mothertobaby.org/ongoing-study/dupixent/.
- are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known whether DUPIXENT passes into your breast milk.
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements.
Especially tell your healthcare provider if you are taking oral, topical, or inhaled corticosteroid medicines; have asthma and use an asthma medicine; or have atopic dermatitis, CRSwNP, or EoE, and also have asthma. Do not change or stop your corticosteroid medicine or other asthma medicine without talking to your healthcare provider. This may cause other symptoms that were controlled by the corticosteroid medicine or other asthma medicine to come back.
DUPIXENT can cause serious side effects, including:
- Allergic reactions. DUPIXENT can cause allergic reactions that can sometimes be severe. Stop using DUPIXENT and tell your healthcare provider or get emergency help right away if you get any of the following signs or symptoms: breathing problems or wheezing, swelling of the face, lips, mouth, tongue or throat, fainting, dizziness, feeling lightheaded, fast pulse, fever, hives, joint pain, general ill feeling, itching, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, nausea or vomiting, or cramps in your stomach-area.
- Eye problems. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any new or worsening eye problems, including eye pain or changes in vision, such as blurred vision. Your healthcare provider may send you to an ophthalmologist for an exam if needed.
- Inflammation of your blood vessels. Rarely, this can happen in people with asthma who receive DUPIXENT. This may happen in people who also take a steroid medicine by mouth that is being stopped or the dose is being lowered. It is not known whether this is caused by DUPIXENT. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have: rash, chest pain, worsening shortness of breath, a feeling of pins and needles or numbness of your arms or legs, or persistent fever.
- Joint aches and pain. Some people who use DUPIXENT have had trouble walking or moving due to their joint symptoms, and in some cases needed to be hospitalized. Tell your healthcare provider about any new or worsening joint symptoms. Your healthcare provider may stop DUPIXENT if you develop joint symptoms.
The most common side effects include:
- Atopic dermatitis: injection site reactions, eye and eyelid inflammation, including redness, swelling, and itching, sometimes with blurred vision, cold sores in your mouth or on your lips, and high count of a certain white blood cell (eosinophilia).
- Asthma: injection site reactions, pain in the throat (oropharyngeal pain), high count of a certain white blood cell (eosinophilia), and parasitic (helminth) infections.
- Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis: injection site reactions, eye and eyelid inflammation, including redness, swelling, and itching, sometimes with blurred vision, high count of a certain white blood cell (eosinophilia), trouble sleeping (insomnia), toothache, gastritis, and joint pain (arthralgia).
- Eosinophilic esophagitis: injection site reactions, upper respiratory tract infections, cold sores in your mouth or on your lips, and joint pain (arthralgia).
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of DUPIXENT. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Use DUPIXENT exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider. It's an injection given under the skin (subcutaneous injection). Your healthcare provider will decide if you or your caregiver can inject DUPIXENT. Do not try to prepare and inject DUPIXENT until you or your caregiver have been trained by your healthcare provider. In children 12 years of age and older, it's recommended DUPIXENT be administered by or under supervision of an adult. In children under 12 years of age, DUPIXENT should be given by a caregiver.
Please see accompanying full Prescribing Information including Patient Information.
Regeneron is a leading biotechnology company that invents, develops and commercializes life-transforming medicines for people with serious diseases. Founded and led for nearly 35 years by physician-scientists, our unique ability to repeatedly and consistently translate science into medicine has led to numerous FDA-approved treatments and product candidates in development, almost all of which were homegrown in our laboratories. Our medicines and pipeline are designed to help patients with eye diseases, allergic and inflammatory diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, pain, hematologic conditions, infectious diseases and rare diseases.
Regeneron is accelerating and improving the traditional drug development process through our proprietary VelociSuite® technologies, such as VelocImmune®, which uses unique genetically humanized mice to produce optimized fully human antibodies and bispecific antibodies, and through ambitious research initiatives such as the Regeneron Genetics Center, which is conducting one of the largest genetics sequencing efforts in the world.
For more information, please visit www.Regeneron.com or follow @Regeneron on Twitter.
We are an innovative global healthcare company, driven by one purpose: we chase the miracles of science to improve people's lives. Our team, across some 100 countries, is dedicated to transforming the practice of medicine by working to turn the impossible into the possible. We provide potentially life-changing treatment options and life-saving vaccine protection to millions of people globally, while putting sustainability and social responsibility at the center of our ambitions.
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